LEAN PRODUCTION and ONE PIECE FLOW IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY

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Lean Manufacturing, briefly pioneered by the Japanese Toyota company, fed by Japanese culture in general, aims to prevent waste in the use of production inputs such as materials and labor in the production establishment, to improve efficiency and quality with small steps, to reduce lost times, to respond quickly customers,we can say that it is a production philosophy, motivation and/or fashion.

Management; It uses its own unique tools and methods in reducing waste, execution and line structures.

These tools are called lean production tools.

 Some of these tools are listed below;

1- Kanban

2- Cellular manufacturing

3- Pull instead of push system

4- 7 waste

5- Poka-yoke

6- Visual factory

7- Andon system

8- OEE

9- Metrics, KPI, Indicators

11- SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Dies)

12- Smart targets

13- TPM  (Total Productive Maintenance)

14- Value flow map

15- Line balance

16- Standardized jobs

17- Continuous improvement

18- Kaizen

19- Continous flow

20- Just in time(JIT)

21- Bottleneck analysis

22- 6 sigma

23- FMEA

24- Hoshin Kanri

25- PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act)

It aims to involve stakeholders in working together and in management processes. This participation is considered very large.It is handled as a participation in which employees from all levels, suppliers and, of course, the customer in the first place. It is even said that “lean production is a pull production system”. As it can be easily understood, it is the customer who gives the first pulling movement to the production system.

Lean thinking production aims to simplify production and management, to facilitate execution and management, and thus to increase its effectiveness. For this purpose, it recommends and uses a one-piece continuous flow system.In many industries, one-piece flow is highly simplifying, increasing efficiency and quality. It is a very effective system especially in sectors such as automotive and machinery production.Group moving is naturally used in production types and processes where one-piece flow reduces efficiency and/or quality.For example, if we produce 6 mm-1.5 mm screws in our process, we do not try to carry out these products or materials alone, but by attaching a kanban card with a trolley, box, chest or basket.

As in many other sectors, the ready-made clothing industry has been greatly influenced by the lean production philosophy and lean production techniques have been applied.Many projects have been realized with the accompaniment of lean production consultants.

In garment production (in the ready-to-wear sector), the products are relatively small in size and the standard times of operations are generally less than 1 (one) minute.In addition, for line balancing purposes, each operation can be performed by more than one operator and each operator can perform more than one operation.For these reasons, it is not possible (without risking inefficiency) to receive (RİGHT) data from each operator and/or operation in garment production where a one-piece flow system is applied.In addition, if an operation is performed by more than one operator (very common in garments and often mandatory for line balancing), traceability is lost.Untraceable production is not naturally measurable. For example, it is not possible to measure quality on an operator-operation basis (where the source of poor quality can be reached).

Every production manager knows that traceability and measurability are crucial for productivity and quality improvement, and therefore for competitiveness improvement. For this reason, we recommend and implement a bundle system for traceability and measurability. In the bundle system, an operation is performed at the “T” moment, each operation in each bundle is performed by only one person.Therefore, the bundle system is traceable. The traceable production system can be easily measured, encouraged and developed with information tools (hardware and software).Other benefits of the Bundle system are the reduction of the number of intermediary workers (workers for transportation purposes), ease of bottleneck management and, of course, ease of job sharing.

Shortly, we recommend and use a bundle system in garment confection management for the purpose of traceability, measurability, ease of bottleneck management, ease of work sharing, and labor-saving for transportation.

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