Verimlilik ve Kalite Geliştirme Projeleri
The increase of the world population causes the growth of the market.However, this growth increased the number of who are sharing these limited resources.The competitive environment in production has warmed up and continues to warm with the acceleration increasing .
With this competitive environment, it becomes more important to use the existing resources more effectively. As known, effective use of resources means increasing productivity.
Productivity, is one of the important topics of engineering.Especially with the competition that increases day by day , it becomes more important.According to this, the number of engineers working on these issues ,like me, has increased.
I am the manager of @ARGE BİLİŞİM, which produces’ and quality measurement, increasing’ and provides services to companies by using industry, electronics and computer engineering sciences.
In this article, I will try to explain “ and quality increasing” by making a general factory modeling without going into scientific details.If you wish let’s start with the Arabic word ‘bereket’ which means abundance, which has been more frequently used in the past.When we open and look at the dictionary, we will see words like “plentiness, abundance, ” facing the word bereket.
In the years when most of the population was envolved in agriculture,you will remember it to be used for the abundance of the product which people get from the field.With the majority of the agricultural sector workers migrating to cities and starting work in factories, this word has been replaced by ‘yield’ and then ‘productivity’.
In order to talk about productivity , we first need to consider a transformative or productive system.Means that we will concretize productivity by taking into consideration converter structure which has input energy (or material),and transform it to another energy (or product).
As we talked about , the place where the subject will go will be factories, as you can imagine.
As you know, factories are the building rocks of the industry.Generally established for profit (here the factories mentioned are non govenemental or non-profit organizations) and we can define the companies that produce goods as factories.First, let’s show these organizations a simple example model with an “input” and an “output”. After this model let’s give an example .
Definition for a general system; The amount of energy used (utilized),After dividing the given (expended) energy after it multiplying by one hundred,we describe as a percentage and benefit-We can explain it as a concept that gives us very important information about cost.
When we write as example the formul of a lightning electric lamp (%)=will be (Light energy received / Electric energy supplied ) x 100.
The point to be considered here is that the denominator and the denominator energy units are the same,
because we express the as (%).
The efficiency of systems on earth is less than 100%, in other words, there is no system with 100% or more. This means that; There is no perfect system on earth. If you have noticed, I have described the perfect system as a 100% efficient system.If there would be a perfect system on earth or if it could be invented we could say that all the wars would have ended and that people would become angels.It means that if there is enough energy for everyone, the sharing problem will disappear.
In fact, we have stated that the sum of energies received in any system is equal to the sum of the energies given.The electricity energy given for our lamp sample is = light energy received + loss. Heat energy for the lost lamp (our expectation from the lamp is light, not heat, so heat is lost for us). When we think about the factory, there are possible losses in inputs such as energy, materials and labor. BThus, we can say that the most efficient factories are the ones with the least possible losses in inputs such as energy, materials and labor. Because the part of productivity in the formula for losses will decrease, economic productivity will increase.
When we define for factories; through our general factory model (%) = We can formulate it as (Input / Output) x 100 . In other words, as purcentage we can define as one of the most important data that shows our profit-loss situation by dividing the the output by the input multiplying to one hundred .
Our sample factory, a garment factory producing one type trousers and examine its in terms of labor.
Number of workers = 100 persons
Daily work duration = 540 Minutes
Daily trousers production quantity = 1500 Pieces
Trousers standart time = 25 Minutes
Productivity(%) = (Quantity x Standart time / Daily work duration x Number of workers ) x 100
= (1500 x 25 / 540 x 100) x 100
Productivity of our sample factory is % 69,44 , the lost human energy is 100- 69,44 = % 30,56.
As can be seen here, we calculated the productivity by turning the inputs and outputs into the same units.
We can make the same calculation in other inputs and outputs so that the units are equal.If you wish, let’s give an example of material now.
Trousers fabric quantity = 1,8 Meters
Fabric quantity used for trousers = 2 Meters
Productivity(%) = (Trousers fabric quantity / Fabric quantity used for trousers) x 100
= (1,8 / 2) x 100
Our sample factory fabric productivity is % 90,if the lost fabric percentage 100-90= % 10.This way we calculated the of the material used.
In terms of production sector, national and international trade competition is increasing with an increasing momentum every day. The prerequisite for getting ahead and making a difference in this competitive environment is to increase productivity. One of the most important (perhaps the most important) issues that our business people need for increasing and maintaining their competition is to continuously measure and increase their productivity.I will be happy if writing this article about productivity would be useful.
ARGE BİLİŞİM LTD
When we observe it in terms of energy, in the Universe and the world that is part of it,there is an infinite number of living and inanimate energy transformation systems . With these systems, an infinite number of energy conversions take place at any moment. We refer by system with transformation , the energy(s) entering the system (converted energy (s)) and energy(s) coming out of the system). We can show the system in general as the following form.
in Figure 1 the system shown is an energy conversion system.The productivity of the system;
Productivity=(output enegry/ Input energy) x 100
It can be calculated with the formula.
If we express this formula orally;What is the percentage % of the output energy converted from the input one? We say that productivity is the answer of this question.
Let’s see closely the productivity formula;
1. Productivity is expressed as % . It means ,if we repeat it, it is the answer to the question of what percentage of the input energy has turned into the output energy.
2. In order to express productivity in %, the energy output from the denominator system and the energy units input the denominator system must be the same.
To understand the productivity concept easily let’s give an example;The electric lamp, which has an important place in all our lives, is a good example.The electric lamp is a great system invented to convert electrical energy into light energy.
Normally, lamp productivity is expressed as the generated light energy equivalent of one watt of electrical energy expended. Here we look at the light energy (lumen) obtained in this time interval in response to the electrical energy (watt) spent in a certain interval of time.
When we apply the productivity formula to the lamp system;
The lamp Productivity= is (Light energy/ Electric energy) x 100
We need to equalize the units so that we can express the production in % . The electrical energy unit is watt and the light energy unit is lumen.Lumen can be converted to watt by multiplying by a constant for the same system. Briefly, we can calculate the lamp productivity by converting the lumen unit to the watt unit.
When finishing the article it is useful to write the following; The energy conversion system model we showed in Figure 1 and the lamp example in Figure 2,
Although it is used to understand the concept of productivity comfortably, it can cause another serious mistake.
By criticizing these impressions in the next article, we will suggest the correct model to prevent misunderstanding
Hope for the family, love, friendship and business investments you have made to be efficient,for now goodbye.
In our previous article, we defined productivity by demonstrating modeling the energy conversion system with one energy input and one energy output.
(see WHAT IS PRODUCTİVİTY? (1)
In the same article ,we agreed about P= (Output energy / Input energy) x100 for an easy understanding of productivity. At the end of the article, we wrote that we will criticize this demonstration and redefine productivity with a new system demonstration.
In the representation in Figure 1, 1 energy enters the system and 1 energy exits.
According to the law telling that The existing energy cannot be distroyed and the one telling that it cannot be created from nothing and according to
‘Conservation Principle of Energy’ entered energies are equal to the emitted ones in a closed system.
According to this system demonstration; Input energy = Output energy Productivity; Productivity = 100%.
EIn the universe There is no such system , the PERFECT (lossless) system.
So, we can easily say that this system representation is wrong and does not fully explain the productivity.
Now we give the new system demonstration as shown on figure 2.
Again, according to the ‘Principle of Conservation of Energy’, the sum of the energies Output = the sum of the energies Input.
Let’s express it by the formula;
It is a very useful demonstration for understanding the subject we explained in Figure 2. Let’s make a few inferences;
1- For an energy transformation there must be at least one type of “Input energy”
2- At least two types of energy appear.
3- Productivity is calculated from the target output energy.
In Figure 2, if the aim (target) energy is “output energy 1”;
If the “Input energy” is also one type;
PRODUCTIVITY = is (output energy 1 / input energy 1 ) x 100.
Now again let’s turn back to the lamp example like as in our previous article.
As can be seen here, electrical energy enters the lamp and (only) light energy comes out.
If only electrical energy was input and again only light energy was output
We would have to say that productivity is 100%. No such lamp has been invented yet.
Let’s draw the correct representation of the lamp system example;
Let’s adapt the inferences we made in Figure 2 to our example;
1-Electricity is the lamp entring energy.
2-At least two types of energy are released from the lamp (Light and Heat).
3-We calculate the lamp productivity using light energy because we do not expect heat from the lamp and heat energy is a loss for us.
4- Productivity is calculated from the target output energy so light energy.
Productivity in a system; We have proved our thesis clearly above “The short definition of the output energy / input energy x 100 is a confusing definition”.
The correct definition of productivity is the ratio of the target energy to the input energy (s) multiplied by 100 .
The concept of productivity is the core of engineering. We will continue our articles about productivity.
Hope for the family, love, friendship and business investments you have made to be efficient,for now goodbye.
As Arge Bilişim company, we would like to share the “line balancing module” which is designed to meet very essential needs in factories.
Firstly, let’s briefly touch on what means line balancing.
Companies were headed towards line type of production systems to use limited production resources more efficiently and reduce production costs. In these production systems, we call this path as the line in which the pieces are transformed into the products.
Line balancing aims to maximize the use of machinery and labor force by synchronizing the speeds of these workstations.
In the production line for each process to be performed, the previous processes must be completed. If you couldn’t have set a balanced line, there will be bottlenecks within the line and as a result of this there will be congestion in some places whilst some operators are awaiting. This will result in a loss of productivity.The area where this congestion mostly happens, i.e the weakest workstation in the flow will also determine your production line’s capacity. With the simplest example, let’s assume that a product goes through a total of 5 separate processes while producing it. Suppose each of these has a production capacity of 100 units per hour. The workstation, which will proceed only in the second row, has a production capacity of 90 units per hour. In this case, if you have not balanced your line, the operators after the second station will be awaiting while there will be continuous congestion from the first station to the second. And you will lose 10 units of production every hour.
Moreover, in this example, we assumed that the capacities of 4 stations are equal. In reality, the duration of the operations is not the same, and the speed, competencies, skills of each operator and the difficulty level of the processes are also different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider many parameters such as these while setting up the line.
Proper line balancing causes a reduction in production costs by decreasing lost time and a rise in productivity with effective use of labor and resource capacity.
So, how do companies do this business in the current situation?
In most of the existing production systems, while the pre-study of line balancing is performed by engineers, the operator scheduling study cannot be done, even if it could be done it is not effective. Because operator assignment is a situation that can vary according to real-time data and this issue is usually done by the line supervisor who is constantly in the production area, not by the engineer.
When an order is confirmed, the engineer primarily forms operations and standard times of the model. Then at best, workloads are calculated by setting out the target efficiency, and this list is given to the line supervisor. For example, the information that 1,5 operators are required for the side seaming operation is given by the engineer. However, there is no information about which 1.5 operators are and how these operators performed in this operation before. So, this information remains only theoretical information. Line balancing which is realized by the line supervisor is based on own experiences regarding who can do which operation or have the capacity to do. In the case of operator nonattendance, the entire balance of the line will be disrupted, and the whole setup has to be thought over from the beginning. It is pretty difficult to think over again as it will cause loss of time and slow down the workflow and often it cannot be done.
If you do not have a system that measures efficiency and quality like ArgeMAS, neither the standard time of product nor the efficiency of operators will be considered. Even the loss of efficiency in between will not be noticed.
This complicated decision, which the human mind and ability cannot have by observation, is too important to be left to the initiative of the people.
In these systems which are labor-intensive and has high variability, the studies about line balancing are far from fully solving the problem.
So, how did we solve this fundamental problem affecting the future of factories?
Theoretical information which is combined with practice in production will give much better results.
For this reason, there is a need for a structure that will combine real-time data from the production area, know-how, and current engineering studies.
For this purpose, a mathematical and special assignment optimization algorithm has been developed by Arge Bilişim engineers to simultaneously solve optimized line setup and operator scheduling problems.
First of all, we can access real-time data such as efficiency, quality, lost time of each operator which are based on an operation by ArgeMAS system which we have installed in factories. We also know the standard times of each operation with the worksheet plans created. However, all models/product types and operations may not be suitable for the competency of the line. To prevent this situation, we check the operator’s ability to operate each of the operations with 2 complementary methods.
The first of these methods is “Operation Similarity Classification”. We ensure that operations are classified according to their methods while operation identification, as a result of these operations that are similar to each other in the way they are performed is taken into the same group. Namely, the way of bartack, Apertura seaming, and quality control operations are performed are completely different than each other. Apartura seaming operation requires alignment and finger dexterity, whereas bartack operation requires alignment and rhythm skills. None of these skills are expected from an operator performing the quality control operation, and it is expected to have developed the ability to distinguish differences and attention skills. From this, it can be inferred that an operator who performs the bartack operation efficiently can easily learn the buttonhole operation that requires the same skills.
The second of these methods is “The difficulty level of operations”. With ArgeMAS system, the difficulty levels of each operation can be found by determining difficulty criteria. For example; Criteria such as long training period, excessive physical burden, high risk of the quality defect are some of the criteria that make operation difficult. The difficulty levels of operations are determined with the analytical work evaluation method by determining more criteria such as these. And the ability of an operator who is successful in one of these operations to perform the other operation can be easily predicted by the Arge Bilişim assignment optimization algorithm, by taking into account the difficulty levels of the operations with the same similarity group.
This is exactly what the line supervisors in the production area are trying to do, but unfortunately, the margin of mistake is very high as each line supervisors can only make a limited evaluation with their own experiences. While utilizing the managerial skills of line supervisors in the production area, the decision on how to set up the line most ideally is made by Arge Bilişim Assignment Optimization Algorithm, which is exactly a real engineering study.
With Arge Bilişim Assignment Optimization Algorithm;
You can get detailed reports based on percentage, quantity, and bundle and you can easily access information such as how much of your operators’ time will be spent on which operation, what percentage of your operations will be performed by which operator. Here, the efficiency value of each operation, operators, and the production line is planned.
The assignment is made by the algorithm to maximize line efficiency by considering model, operations, similarity group, difficulty levels, and the workload of the operation. The efficiency of a line that will emerge as a result of this assignment, is calculated entirely on real data. Instead of a static capacity, a dynamic capacity that is calculated according to real data is used as important information while planning production. Production planning, which is made as “If we produce an average of 1000 pcs per day, we will deliver this order on Friday” will be replaced by a completely new production planning which is fed with real data. This also prevents delays caused by inaccurate capacity planning.
Besides, in case of any changes in the production area, it is required to change the line setup and to be found the new ideal structure. For example, when 3 operators do not come to work that day in production, this situation will cause exact chaos in the production area, whereas the Assignment Optimization Algorithm of Arge Bilişim re-plans the most ideal structure according to the variability and presents the fast, effective and a real plan to the user again.
The ideal line structures where the models/products will be produced most efficiently are also determined by Arge Bilişim Assignment Optimization Algorithm. For example, there are 15 lines in your factory and you want to plan 20 models to these lines. By the system, the factory is considered as a single line, and 15 lines which will be produced these 20 models are created again in the most ideal way. Therefore, the bottleneck operation of a line can be solved with a competent but unassigned operator compared to the lines that will set without using the program, thus productivity can be increased.
To summarize the results of Arge Bilişim Assignment Optimization Algorithm;
First of all, ArgeMAS measures productivity in terms of efficiency and quality. ‘Arge Bilişim Assignment Optimization Algorithm’ sets the most efficient and balanced lines by using real operations and operators according to these efficiency and quality results.
Secondly, it provides the actual production capacity information for production planning.
Thirdly, the workload of line supervisors is reduced, allowing them to focus more on the managerial sphere.
Fourthly, the line setup time, which is shortened with the bundle system, will be shorter with this Algorithm, the line supervisor does not have any doubt about which operator to evaluate which operation during model transitions and can easily organize the line with the report in hand.
Lastly, it is pretty difficult to think over the line again by keeping up with the production’s variability. It will be very easy and fast to think over again the line in the most ideal way according to current conditions.
We can include the other benefit of this algorithm as forming the line structures in the most ideal way whereas more than one model is planned to more than one line.
Like this, we can even use it in many areas that will directly support the rise in productivity.
Nuri SOKULLU (Mavi Jeans)
Before Arge-Mas, we could report the situation the day before in our factory. However, we were not aware of the problems. We couldn’t intervene. Now we can monitor the productivity of every person or machine on the air. The productivity of our factory has been around 15%.
Oğuz AÇIKGÖZ (Ünlü Tekstil )
“When I was told about @rge-MAS I was definitely sure that it would fill a crucial gap in the sector. Even though many productivity analyses are applied, thanks to this programme, productivity can be measured in real time completely for the first time. Besides in real time measurement, this programme included every element of production from the machines to the operators, from the production manager to the general manager. Every employee can see the number of operations he carried out and also the productivity in real time on the device. Thus this system helps the line to be balanced and prevents lost time. With such a system it is inevitable to improve productivity. We have been using this system .
For nearly 1.5 years this programme has enabled us to make a huge progress. A collective productivity mentality has occurred in our firm. Thanks to the conveniences and follow-up attitude opportunities of the system, everyone from the production adopted it. This is the best quality of the system. Every employee of our factory now aims at the highest rate of productivity of time and does it sincerely. Besides, we are now saving money since our stationary expenses are lower, because we do not need to print thousands of barcodes for hundreds of hours any longer. The department of production has steered from stationary works to their real work, ‘productivity’.
@rge-MAS is a big opportunity for the turkish markets and it will definitely improve the competition opportunities . As long as it is used properly, I can easily say that this system provides a structure that makes employer and employee contented. The upgraded and newer versions of the programme are my biggest expectation and hope. I appreciate ARGE BILISIM for giving such a system to the market.”
Kutlu CECELİ (APS Tekstil)
With the installation of the system, all the data which are critical for the production management and real time productivity of the operators have now begun to be seen. In this way it is easy to react and correct the irregularities because disruptions to the production can be followed in real time.
Operators can follow their own performance in real time therefore they began to provide an additional benefit. Actually the system is literally like a car speedometer; when operators step on the gas they can see the car speeding up and when they take their feet of the gas they can realize it slowing down. All the data related to the line and the best and the worst operators can be seen with the screens in the production area. Also these screens appeal to the mental side of the employees.
On the other hand, the system makes it possible to solve the daily operational problems and the management problems of the company. When operators have low performance which is not related to them, they report these reasons to the management department and the management department deals with the issue immediately.
I believe that this system must be installed by all companies which operate garment production in Turkey.
Şenol ATALAY (Ototrim Otomotiv)
ARGE BILISIM focuses on putting forward flexible modules and solutions that are suitable for our company instead of selling commercial goods. When we started to use @rge-CMAS we became able to trace all production operations including purchase orders, production, products and materials in real time.
The team of ARGE BILISIM make the software fit for our requests, and the special effort and subsequent support of ARGE BILISIM to us was very important.I thank them for their effort.
Fatih GÜRSES (Gülbebe Tekstil)
“Since the first day that we started to work with @rge-MAS, it has had a positive effect on developing organization and productivity.
Permanent and useful improvements can be achieved by using the modules on the program.
Software developers and the technical team guide us by generating new ideas during the implementation in the production area.
We cannot evaluate and improve the things that we cannot measure. This programme sets a mesurement mechanism which can easily be implemented in every step of production.
High benefits have been acquired until now and continuity which is not interrupted will be long-lasting with the cooperation of ARGE BILISIM.
Metin BABACAN (As Ortakçı – Cam & Ayna İşleme Tesisi)
We are very pleased with the barcode system which was implemented 2 years ago. With the system we can easily trace the duty ratio of operators and break times the operators, we can follow the productivity and the same time the operators doing the operations or causing mechanical failure.
At the same time we can see the online quantity of products being operated or finished and the products which are in the warehouse. Due to the system we can save the data of employees’ entrance and exit times, so that overtime can be added to working time of the operators.
We have not had a big problem with the system so far and it is very convenient. Minor problems arising because of us have been solved by ARGE BILISIM immediately on telephone or e-mail.
We are very pleased with it. Therefore we thank ARGE BILISIM and Zarif AYLUCTARHAN.
Mine DALAK( Ozon Tekstil)
To survive and make a profit in a world which is like a small town these days, there is no solution but to reduce costs on the market which has certain prices. The activity of minimizing the cost can be done by raising employees’ productivity at companies which use labor-cost sectors. With the consultancy of ARGE BILISIM and @rge-MAS system we can see the ratio of productivity and we have done this in the fastest way. According to the ratio of productivity we use performance-based salary system that is the best motivational factor.thank you.
Sarp AKIN( Akın Brode)
Since 2005 ARGE BILISIM has supported us for our MRP solutions by solving our software problems with their excellent quality of service. We thank Arge BILISIM for helping us to increase and develop the quality of our service.