Verimlilik ve Kalite Geliştirme Projeleri
The increase of the world population causes the growth of the market.However, this growth increased the number of who are sharing these limited resources.The competitive environment in production has warmed up and continues to warm with the acceleration increasing .
With this competitive environment, it becomes more important to use the existing resources more effectively. As known, effective use of resources means increasing productivity.
Productivity, is one of the important topics of engineering.Especially with the competition that increases day by day , it becomes more important.According to this, the number of engineers working on these issues ,like me, has increased.
I am the manager of @ARGE BİLİŞİM, which produces’ and quality measurement, increasing’ and provides services to companies by using industry, electronics and computer engineering sciences.
In this article, I will try to explain “ and quality increasing” by making a general factory modeling without going into scientific details.If you wish let’s start with the Arabic word ‘bereket’ which means abundance, which has been more frequently used in the past.When we open and look at the dictionary, we will see words like “plentiness, abundance, ” facing the word bereket.
In the years when most of the population was envolved in agriculture,you will remember it to be used for the abundance of the product which people get from the field.With the majority of the agricultural sector workers migrating to cities and starting work in factories, this word has been replaced by ‘yield’ and then ‘productivity’.
In order to talk about productivity , we first need to consider a transformative or productive system.Means that we will concretize productivity by taking into consideration converter structure which has input energy (or material),and transform it to another energy (or product).
As we talked about , the place where the subject will go will be factories, as you can imagine.
As you know, factories are the building rocks of the industry.Generally established for profit (here the factories mentioned are non govenemental or non-profit organizations) and we can define the companies that produce goods as factories.First, let’s show these organizations a simple example model with an “input” and an “output”. After this model let’s give an example .
Definition for a general system; The amount of energy used (utilized),After dividing the given (expended) energy after it multiplying by one hundred,we describe as a percentage and benefit-We can explain it as a concept that gives us very important information about cost.
When we write as example the formul of a lightning electric lamp (%)=will be (Light energy received / Electric energy supplied ) x 100.
The point to be considered here is that the denominator and the denominator energy units are the same,
because we express the as (%).
The efficiency of systems on earth is less than 100%, in other words, there is no system with 100% or more. This means that; There is no perfect system on earth. If you have noticed, I have described the perfect system as a 100% efficient system.If there would be a perfect system on earth or if it could be invented we could say that all the wars would have ended and that people would become angels.It means that if there is enough energy for everyone, the sharing problem will disappear.
In fact, we have stated that the sum of energies received in any system is equal to the sum of the energies given.The electricity energy given for our lamp sample is = light energy received + loss. Heat energy for the lost lamp (our expectation from the lamp is light, not heat, so heat is lost for us). When we think about the factory, there are possible losses in inputs such as energy, materials and labor. BThus, we can say that the most efficient factories are the ones with the least possible losses in inputs such as energy, materials and labor. Because the part of productivity in the formula for losses will decrease, economic productivity will increase.
When we define for factories; through our general factory model (%) = We can formulate it as (Input / Output) x 100 . In other words, as purcentage we can define as one of the most important data that shows our profit-loss situation by dividing the the output by the input multiplying to one hundred .
Our sample factory, a garment factory producing one type trousers and examine its in terms of labor.
Number of workers = 100 persons
Daily work duration = 540 Minutes
Daily trousers production quantity = 1500 Pieces
Trousers standart time = 25 Minutes
Productivity(%) = (Quantity x Standart time / Daily work duration x Number of workers ) x 100
= (1500 x 25 / 540 x 100) x 100
Productivity of our sample factory is % 69,44 , the lost human energy is 100- 69,44 = % 30,56.
As can be seen here, we calculated the productivity by turning the inputs and outputs into the same units.
We can make the same calculation in other inputs and outputs so that the units are equal.If you wish, let’s give an example of material now.
Trousers fabric quantity = 1,8 Meters
Fabric quantity used for trousers = 2 Meters
Productivity(%) = (Trousers fabric quantity / Fabric quantity used for trousers) x 100
= (1,8 / 2) x 100
Our sample factory fabric productivity is % 90,if the lost fabric percentage 100-90= % 10.This way we calculated the of the material used.
In terms of production sector, national and international trade competition is increasing with an increasing momentum every day. The prerequisite for getting ahead and making a difference in this competitive environment is to increase productivity. One of the most important (perhaps the most important) issues that our business people need for increasing and maintaining their competition is to continuously measure and increase their productivity.I will be happy if writing this article about productivity would be useful.
ARGE BİLİŞİM LTD
When we observe it in terms of energy, in the Universe and the world that is part of it,there is an infinite number of living and inanimate energy transformation systems . With these systems, an infinite number of energy conversions take place at any moment. We refer by system with transformation , the energy(s) entering the system (converted energy (s)) and energy(s) coming out of the system). We can show the system in general as the following form.
in Figure 1 the system shown is an energy conversion system.The productivity of the system;
Productivity=(output enegry/ Input energy) x 100
It can be calculated with the formula.
If we express this formula orally;What is the percentage % of the output energy converted from the input one? We say that productivity is the answer of this question.
Let’s see closely the productivity formula;
1. Productivity is expressed as % . It means ,if we repeat it, it is the answer to the question of what percentage of the input energy has turned into the output energy.
2. In order to express productivity in %, the energy output from the denominator system and the energy units input the denominator system must be the same.
To understand the productivity concept easily let’s give an example;The electric lamp, which has an important place in all our lives, is a good example.The electric lamp is a great system invented to convert electrical energy into light energy.
Normally, lamp productivity is expressed as the generated light energy equivalent of one watt of electrical energy expended. Here we look at the light energy (lumen) obtained in this time interval in response to the electrical energy (watt) spent in a certain interval of time.
When we apply the productivity formula to the lamp system;
The lamp Productivity= is (Light energy/ Electric energy) x 100
We need to equalize the units so that we can express the production in % . The electrical energy unit is watt and the light energy unit is lumen.Lumen can be converted to watt by multiplying by a constant for the same system. Briefly, we can calculate the lamp productivity by converting the lumen unit to the watt unit.
When finishing the article it is useful to write the following; The energy conversion system model we showed in Figure 1 and the lamp example in Figure 2, Although it is used to understand the concept of productivity comfortably, it can cause another serious mistake. By criticizing these impressions in the next article, we will suggest the correct model to prevent misunderstanding
Hope for the family, love, friendship and business investments you have made to be efficient,for now goodbye.
Bir önceki yazımızda tek enerji girişi, tek enerji çıkışı olacak şekilde enerji dönüşüm sistemi modellemesi göstererek verimliliği tanımlamıştık. (bakınız VERİMLİLİK NEDİR?(1)
Aynı yazımızda verimliliğin daha rahat anlaşılabilmesi için V= (Çıkan enerji / Giren enerji)
X100 olarak anlatmıştık. Yazının sonunda bu gösterimi eleştirip yeni bir sistem gösterimi ile verimliliği yeniden tanımlayacağımızı yazmıştık.
Şekil 1’deki gösterimde sisteme 1 enerji girmekte ve 1 enerji çıkmaktadır.
Enerji vardan yok edilemez ve yoktan var edilemez kanununa göre ve ‘Enerjinin Korunumu
Prensibine’ göre kapalı bir sisteme giren enerjiler, çıkan enerjilere eşittir. Bu sistem
gösterimine göre; Giren enerji = Çıkan enerjidir Verimlilik; Verimlilik = %100 dür.
Evrende böyle bir sistem yani MÜKEMMEL(kayıpsız) sistem yoktur.
O halde rahatlıkla bu sistem gösteriminin yanlış olduğunu ve verimliliği tam anlamıyla açıklamadığını söyleyebiliriz.
Şimdi yeni sistem gösterimini şekil 2’deki gibi veriyoruz.
Tekrar ‘Enerjinin Korunumu Prensibi’ne göre ifade edersek çıkan enerjilerin toplamı = giren enerjilerin toplamıdır.
Formül ile ifade edersek;
Şekil 2’de anlattığımız konuyu anlamakta oldukça kullanışlı bir gösterimdir. Birkaç çıkarım yapalım;
1- Bir enerji dönüşümü için en az bir “giren enerji” çeşidi olmalı.
2- En az iki enerji çeşidi açığa çıkar.
3- Verimlilik hedef çıkan enerji üstünden hesaplanır.
Şekil 2’de amaç (hedef) enerji “çıkan enerji 1” ise;
Eğer “giren enerji” de tek çeşitse;
VERİMLİLİK = (çıkan enerji 1 / giren enerji 1 ) x 100 dür.
Şimdide yine önceki yazımızda olduğu gibi lamba örneğinden gidelim.
Burada da görüldüğü gibi lambaya elektrik enerjisi giriyor ve (yanlızca) ışık enerjisi çıkıyor.
Eğer sadece elektrik enerjisi giriyor ve yine sadece ışık enerjisi açığa çıkıyor olsaydı
Verimlilik %100 dür demek durumunda kalacaktık. Böyle bir lamba icat edilmedi henüz.
Şimdi lamba sistemi örneğinin doğru gösterimini çizelim;
Şekil 2’de yaptığımız çıkarımları örneğimize uyarlayalım;
1-Lambanın giriş enerjisi elektriktir.
2-Lambadan en az iki enerji çeşidi açığa çıkar (Işık ve Isı).
3-Lamba verimliliği ışık enerjisini kullanarak hesaplarız çünkü lambadan ısı
beklemiyoruz ve ısı enerjisi bizim için kayıptır.
4- Verimlilik hedef çıkan enerji yani ışık enerjisi üstünden hesaplanır.
Bir sistemde verimliliğin; “Çıkan enerji / giren enerji x 100 şeklinde ki kısa tanımı yanıltıcı bir tanımdır” tezimizi yukarıda açık şekilde ispatlamış olduk.
Verimlilik hedef enerjinin, giren enerji(ler)e oranı çarpı 100’dür tanımı doğru olandır.
Verimlilik kavramı mühendisliğin özüdür. Verimlikle ilgili yazılarımıza devam edeceğiz.
Yapmış olduğunuz aile, sevgi, dostluk ve iş yatırımlarının verimli olması dileği ile şimdilik.
Nuri SOKULLU (Mavi Jeans)
Before Arge-Mas, we could report the situation the day before in our factory. However, we were not aware of the problems. We couldn’t intervene. Now we can monitor the productivity of every person or machine on the air. The productivity of our factory has been around 15%.
Oğuz AÇIKGÖZ (Ünlü Tekstil )
“When I was told about @rge-MAS I was definitely sure that it would fill a crucial gap in the sector. Even though many productivity analyses are applied, thanks to this programme, productivity can be measured in real time completely for the first time. Besides in real time measurement, this programme included every element of production from the machines to the operators, from the production manager to the general manager. Every employee can see the number of operations he carried out and also the productivity in real time on the device. Thus this system helps the line to be balanced and prevents lost time. With such a system it is inevitable to improve productivity. We have been using this system .
For nearly 1.5 years this programme has enabled us to make a huge progress. A collective productivity mentality has occurred in our firm. Thanks to the conveniences and follow-up attitude opportunities of the system, everyone from the production adopted it. This is the best quality of the system. Every employee of our factory now aims at the highest rate of productivity of time and does it sincerely. Besides, we are now saving money since our stationary expenses are lower, because we do not need to print thousands of barcodes for hundreds of hours any longer. The department of production has steered from stationary works to their real work, ‘productivity’.
@rge-MAS is a big opportunity for the turkish markets and it will definitely improve the competition opportunities . As long as it is used properly, I can easily say that this system provides a structure that makes employer and employee contented. The upgraded and newer versions of the programme are my biggest expectation and hope. I appreciate ARGE BILISIM for giving such a system to the market.”
Kutlu CECELİ (APS Tekstil)
With the installation of the system, all the data which are critical for the production management and real time productivity of the operators have now begun to be seen. In this way it is easy to react and correct the irregularities because disruptions to the production can be followed in real time.
Operators can follow their own performance in real time therefore they began to provide an additional benefit. Actually the system is literally like a car speedometer; when operators step on the gas they can see the car speeding up and when they take their feet of the gas they can realize it slowing down. All the data related to the line and the best and the worst operators can be seen with the screens in the production area. Also these screens appeal to the mental side of the employees.
On the other hand, the system makes it possible to solve the daily operational problems and the management problems of the company. When operators have low performance which is not related to them, they report these reasons to the management department and the management department deals with the issue immediately.
I believe that this system must be installed by all companies which operate garment production in Turkey.
Şenol ATALAY (Ototrim Otomotiv)
ARGE BILISIM focuses on putting forward flexible modules and solutions that are suitable for our company instead of selling commercial goods. When we started to use @rge-CMAS we became able to trace all production operations including purchase orders, production, products and materials in real time.
The team of ARGE BILISIM make the software fit for our requests, and the special effort and subsequent support of ARGE BILISIM to us was very important.I thank them for their effort.
Fatih GÜRSES (Gülbebe Tekstil)
“Since the first day that we started to work with @rge-MAS, it has had a positive effect on developing organization and productivity.
Permanent and useful improvements can be achieved by using the modules on the program.
Software developers and the technical team guide us by generating new ideas during the implementation in the production area.
We cannot evaluate and improve the things that we cannot measure. This programme sets a mesurement mechanism which can easily be implemented in every step of production.
High benefits have been acquired until now and continuity which is not interrupted will be long-lasting with the cooperation of ARGE BILISIM.
Metin BABACAN (As Ortakçı – Cam & Ayna İşleme Tesisi)
We are very pleased with the barcode system which was implemented 2 years ago. With the system we can easily trace the duty ratio of operators and break times the operators, we can follow the productivity and the same time the operators doing the operations or causing mechanical failure.
At the same time we can see the online quantity of products being operated or finished and the products which are in the warehouse. Due to the system we can save the data of employees’ entrance and exit times, so that overtime can be added to working time of the operators.
We have not had a big problem with the system so far and it is very convenient. Minor problems arising because of us have been solved by ARGE BILISIM immediately on telephone or e-mail.
We are very pleased with it. Therefore we thank ARGE BILISIM and Zarif AYLUCTARHAN.
Mine DALAK( Ozon Tekstil)
To survive and make a profit in a world which is like a small town these days, there is no solution but to reduce costs on the market which has certain prices. The activity of minimizing the cost can be done by raising employees’ productivity at companies which use labor-cost sectors. With the consultancy of ARGE BILISIM and @rge-MAS system we can see the ratio of productivity and we have done this in the fastest way. According to the ratio of productivity we use performance-based salary system that is the best motivational factor.thank you.
Sarp AKIN( Akın Brode)
Since 2005 ARGE BILISIM has supported us for our MRP solutions by solving our software problems with their excellent quality of service. We thank Arge BILISIM for helping us to increase and develop the quality of our service.